Academic Performance – The Impact Of Motivation On Teachers’ And Students’ In Some Selected Secondary School In Udi Local Government Area
Academic Performance – The Impact Of Motivation On Teachers’ And Students’ In Some Selected Secondary School In Udi Local Government Area
Education has been recognized as the fundamental basis on which any nation could function effectively. It’s socio-political and economic viability depends solely on the qualitative education given to her citizens. Any nation that wants to be recognized as a developed country must build its human resources firmly. Hence, a country is said to be technologically developed, if majority of her populace are well educated.
Therefore, those that impart the needed knowledge or those that build and mould character must be motivated adequately because motivation is the key to performance and improvement. Hence it is believed that a motivated teacher always complete the tasks set for him, even when such tasks or assignments are difficult or seen uninteresting. However the pertinent question that may rise is; what is motivation?
Motivation comes from the Latin root “movers” which means to move. So motivation can mean the process of arousing the interest of an individual to take a move towards a certain goal. Harzberg (1978), defines motivation as all those phenomena which are involved in the stimulation of actions toward particular objectives where previously, there was little or no movement towards these goals. Waitley (1996), defines motivation as the inner derive which prompts people act in a certain way. Motivation involved a number of psychological factors that start and maintained activities towards the achievement of personal goals. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behaviour towards subjects matter Ormord (2003). Motivation of teachers and students in teaching and learning process can direct behaviour towards particular goals, leads to increase effort and energy enhance cognitive processing, increase initiation of and persistence in activities, determine what consequences are reinforcing and it can also lead to improved performance. Orphlims (2002) is of the view that motivated teachers always look for better ways to do their teaching job, they are more quality oriented and are more productive. Therefore, it means that motivated teachers are determine, to give their, best to achieve the maximum output (qualitative education). Motivation can be in the form of regular payment of salary, fringe benefit, such as allowance, bonus on the job training, promotion of the teachers, provision of good working environment, maintaining high degree of relationship and improving the teachers general well being. Hence, any teacher that enjoys the above named items is band to give all his best in discharging of his duty because, he would derive satisfaction of being a teacher.
In educational sector, motivation plays a great role. When teachers are motivated, this will lead to good performance and high productivity to the sustain of the national growth and development and also, the welfare of its citizens at large. According to Alu, Eya, Odo, Ede and Ugwu (2001) education is an ancient enterprise designed to be the vehicle of social change and over development of self, culture and society. Education is a process designed to help all human beings to grows into persons.
In the view of the above the national policy on education (1981), section one paragraph two stated that the “Nigerians philosophy of education, therefore is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizens and equal educational opportunities for all citizens of the nation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, both inside and outside the formal school system.
Consequently, the Nigeria policy on education section nine paragraph 57, stated that “teachers’ education will continue to be given a major emphasis in all our educational planning because, no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Therefore, various purposes or aims of teachers’ education should be inculcated into our schools. It will be necessary for the provision of highly motivated, conscious and efficient classroom teachers for all level of our educational system and also to encourage teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession.
Also motivation has an effect on the society in various ways for the development of the nation of the hallmarks of the development and economic prosperity while low performance create problem of underdevelopment. Since the future of the country lies with the students, so those students need to be well educated, so that they can be equipped with the knowledge and skills to pilot the affairs of this country.
Therefore, the impact of motivation and academic performance of the students when properly treated, will lead to good performance and high productivity to the sustenance of the national progress.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is obvious that professional trained teachers always give in their best in carrying out their duties and responsibilities. However, it is pertinent that teachers’ activities must be compensated or rewarded as an encouragement as well as enabling them to work harder in order to achieve the main objective of teaching and learning. The absent of motivation has a negative effect in the standard of education in the country as the students are being deprived of the needed knowledge because the teachers are to motivated to impact the needed knowledge. Hence, the problems associated with this negative attitude towards motivation result to this:
Teachers do not give their best, due to o payment or salary by the authority to the teachers’ student’s inadequate knowledge as a result of not being taught adequately since the teachers are not motivated to give in their best, Teachers life look deplorable as they are being deprived of their benefit they ought to enjoy and mike them effective as efficient in their teaching job, low standard of education in the country is noted since the qualitative education needed is absential. Society human resources will be lagging since the character and knowledge moulder (teacher) cannot satisfactorily perform his duty.
Therefore, the resultant effect of this problem affects the society at large, since the educational sector cannot produce the desired result as designed in the national policy of education I 2004.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research is aimed at finding out the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance in the school system. The study specifically tends to;
i. To find the extent to which supervision of instruction influence learning and enhance students academic performance.
ii. To find out the extent to which government regular payment of salaries at and when due to the teachers.
iii. To find out the extent to which promotion of teachers at and when due influences teaching and learning process.
iv. To find out the extent to which such programmes like seminars, conferences and workshops that are conducted for the teachers can enhance their personal academic and professional growth.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hope that the final result of this research work will help in finding possible ways, how motivation can influence productivity/performance in teaching and learning process and also improve learning on the part of students. It is important for the researcher to put into consideration, the significance of teachers’ motivation and academic performance of students’.
However, this research will be significance in the following ways:
1. When teachers are being motivated, the society/government will benefit immensely in the sense that the teachers put in their best, the students (youth) will contribute properly to the economic growth and development of the nation and the welfare of its citizens.
2. Parents will also benefit when teachers are being motivated in the sense that the students will be responsible to their parents and also the money spent on them will not be in vein because they will help in carrying out families responsibilities.
3. Students will benefit equally when teachers are motivated because the research will enable them to enhance and improve their academic performance.
4. The teachers also benefit a lot when they positive motivation is given to them in terms of promotion, fringe benefit, salaries are paid at and when due, they will give in their best in the teaching process. And also their standard of living will improve.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers some selected secondary schools in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state.
Moreover, the scope of this study is limited to finding the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. To what extent does irregular payment of teachers salaries affect the teachers performance on their academic desk?
2. To what extent does the conducting of seminars, conferences and workshops for the teachers influence the teaching learning process?
3. To what extent does inadequate promotion of teachers affect them in disposing their duties effectively and efficiency?
4. To what extent does negligent of teachers’ welfare affect his service (teaching)?
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter deals with the review of related literature. The review is presented under two broad headings. The theoretical and conceptual frame work, and the empirical studies.
In practical study of this nature, it is obvious to develop sound conceptual and theoretical base that are capable of unveiling the wide concepts situations and similarities in this study. Under the theoretical framework, the literature review is organized under the following sub- headings:
- Theories of motivation on learning outcome.
- Importance of motivation
The related empirical studies were also carried out under the following sub-headings:
- Motivational strategies for teachers
- Problems affecting teaching performance
- Impact of motivation on students’ performance.
2.1 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION OF LEARNING OUTCOME
There is a general agreement among psychologists that with a few exceptions, which will be noted, all behaviours are motivated, people have reasons for doing the things they do and that behaviour is oriented towards meeting certain goals and objectives. That is why Freud (1990) and other psychologists like Taylor (1949) generally agreed that man is motivated by the desire to satisfy a number of needs. Some of which he is not consciously aware of differences of opinions exist as to the nature and relative importance of these needs. This is true because there is no doubt that teachers whose financial needs are not satisfied will be psychologically and socially demoralized in his working attitude and this is of immense effect to the performance of such teachers. But when teachers salaries and allowances are paid at and when due, this will reduce the number of teachers truancy which is rampant in the teaching and learning system of secondary schools. Many teachers come into the school only to put his or her name in the attendance register and moves out in pursuit of other business or jobs which will earn him/her a large amount of money to make both ends meet since the salary is small. This attitude makes the students to go home after a whole day with nothing done or either one or two subjects for a day. This lowers the morale of students towards learning. Hence, below comes the lists of some theories of motivation.
MASLOW’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION
Maslow (1954) came up with the theory of hierarchy of needs. This is based on clinical supervision and logic. In this theory of motivation, he stresses that individuals are motivated to satisfy several different kinds of needs, which are more proponent than others. Maslow’s theory states that if a number of features of a person’s needs are unsatisfied at any given time, satisfaction of the most proponent ones will be more pressing than that of other.
So Maslow was on the idea that a satisfied needs does not determined behaviour but unsatisfied need. This implies that the teacher’s behaviour in the classroom is a function of his needs. In other words, his needs influence his behaviour in the classroom in no small measure.
VICTOR VROOM’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION
Victor Vroom (1964) in his own contributions advanced the expectancy valence theory. He stated that if individual worker believes that working hard will lead to salary increase, he will intensify his effort and work hard. The theory recognizes that people act only when they have a reasonable expectation that their actions will lead to a desired goal. Victor Vroom called this “Expectance theory” which places emphasis on performance, nothing that there must be a clearly recognized goal and relationship between performance and outcome. Motivation is a functions of the expectancy of attaining a certain outcome in performing a certain act multiplied by the value of the outcome for the performance.
M(f) = ExV
Where M = Motivation
E = Expectancy
V = Value expected.
Expectancy theory has two outcomes. First, outcome that are highly valued, and have high expectations of being realized will direct a person to make a greater effort in his taste. Secondly, outcome with high expectations, which are less highly valued or even dislike will reduce the effort expected. The significance of this theory is that an administration should take cognizance of the relationship of the first and second outcomes and use them to motivate his subordinates.
MC GREGOR’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION
Another human relation theorist Mc Gregor (1960) in his work “the human side of enterprise”, advanced to belief about human behaviour that could be held by different managers. He sees two sets of assumption made by managers about their employees. First is what he calls theory which view man on the following set of principle:
Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible.
Because of this, human characteristics of dislike of work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort towards the advancement of the organization objectives.
The average human being prefers to be diverted, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all. The holders of this vie believe that motivation of workers can be attained through authority and fear and that employees have to be closely watched if result must be obtained.
In summary, this x side of the theory emphasized control and extrinsic rewards. On the other hand, the second assumption called theory y, sees man in a more favourable light. Here workers under this concept of management posses potential that is generally untapped by most working environments.
It has the following assumptions:
The time spent on physical and mental efforts in work is as natural as play or rest.
External controls and the threats of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort towards organizational objectives.
People will exercise self-direction and self –control in the service of objective to which they are committed. Committed to objective is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. The most important of such rewards is the satisfaction of ego and self-actualization towards organizational objectives.
Average human being learn under proper condition not only to accept but also to seek responsibility.
The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely not narrowly distributed in the population.
Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human beings are only partially utilized. This theory in summary presents it is aspect of participation and concern for workers morals, encouraged managers to begin to delegate authority for making decisions, enrich or enlarge jobs by making them less respective as the way to motivate employees to higher performance.
In conclusion, this theory summarized the employees behaviour using the two sides of its X and Y. As it was stated above, the x side of it emphasized control and extrinsic rewards the y side of it emphasized the managerial concern for workers morals and encouraged manager to begin to delegate authority for making decisions enrich or enlarge job by making them less repetitive as the ways to motivate employees to higher performance.
The educational implication of this theory is that teachers should always be able to effectively exercise control and proper management of their classroom while they teach students with various teaching methods, considering individual differences among learners, environmental conditions, teaching aids etc which will enhance easier learning. And also, while they do these, they should also externally aid faster learning by the introduction of reinforcement, that is giving of rewards to students who perform well in classroom work or examination.
HERBERG’S THEORY O MOTIVATION
Herberg established what he called hygiene or maintenance factors and motivators. According to him, here are certain extrinsic factors which by their presence do not increase the workers satisfaction or the job, but there absence may lead to job dissatisfaction and lower productivity among employees. Such extrinsic job conditions were environmental factors over which the employee has limited influence. They include payment, interpersonal relations, organizational policy and administration, supervision and working conditions. These he called hygiene factors or dissatisfier. The significance of this factor is that is does not only rely on extrinsic rewards for motivating employees for higher production but also incorporates in the job itself those ingredients that could help motivate employees.
Though researcher support Herberg, it is not freed of criticism. Critics argued that how he gathered his data is questionable. However, despite that, Herberg’s theory is in many ways a gross over simplification as various aspects of the motivations theories clearly show in it. It has made a major contributions in focusing attention on jobs redesign for the purpose of making the work more intrinsically satisfying.
Hence, Herberg’s theory have been found to be applicable in the field of education in the following ways:
Motivation is related to leadership, for good leadership sets an example, provides guidance, encouragement and instructions. This can be one of the greatest motivational strategies of all secondary school, which effective principals will use to motivate staff and pupils.
Another feature of motivation of teachers is that if teachers are properly motivated, this can change an otherwise mediocre group into a highly productive team.
Good motivation of teachers is definitely related to morale. In a large organization, high moral is difficult to attain and motivation of teachers is a prime factor in achieving it.
COGNITIVE – FIELD THEORY OF MOTIVATION
This theory was popularized by Kurt Lewin. In an attempt to explain the theory, he proposed certain motivational constructs. These are:
In an organism, tension is created by disequilbruim within the organism, which the organism wants to release through activities. The activities which help in releasing tension have positive valence and those that have opposite effect have negative valance. Tension induces valence in an organism and valence directs behaviour. Tension continues till the organism attain it’s goals.
Two types of need were proposed by Lewin. They are genuine need and quasi need. Genuine needs can come from the physiological conditions of the organism such as hunger, thirsty, shelter etc. Quasi need is tension that arise from intentions, acts of will and other arbitrary commitments of the individual. Every organism has a characteristic structure of needs which create tension thereby making the organism to be activated.
FORCE AND VALENCE
The desirability of an activity is called valence and the tendency to engage in the act is called force. Valence influences choice while force is more useful for speed or persistence of behaviour. Need gives rise to force signifying a valence activity. If the organism has no need, the environment registers no valence and no force is also generated.
In summary, the cognitive field theory of motivation is a direct function of the combinations of tension, need, force and valence.
Hence this theory is applicable in the field of education and also to what happens in the life of a teacher. For instance, like one of the motivational constructs “Needs” such as hunger, thirsty, shelter etc. the teacher that is characterized with these problems will not perform well in the classroom and in this case the students academic performance will be very low. But when teacher are being motivated such as given housing and transport allowance, when their salaries are paid regularly, when they get car loan and car basic allowance, these will enhance positive attitude towards task and as such improve high performance in the classroom.
2.2 IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
The term motivation is derived from a Latin word “movers”, which means to move into action. This means that motivation is simply the cause and why of human behaviour. To further-stress on the meaning of motivation, Monday Holmes and Flippo (1980), sees motivation as a process of stimulating an individual to take decision and action in order to achieve a specific desired goal. Morgan, King and Robinson (1984) defined motivation as a state, which individual or animal gingers or derives behaviour towards some specific goals. Furthermore, Herberg (1978) was not far from the perception of motivation from the above view as he defined motivation as the psychological process that arouse, direct and maintain behaviour towards a goal.
Hence, going by the definitions of motivation as x-rayed above, one can simply conclude that efficiency, good performance and high productivity is a direct function of adequate motivation on the part of workers in an organization. And when workers were properly motivated, leading to efficiency, good performance and high productivity, the implication of this is sudden and sustained rise in national growth and development and invariably the general improvement in the welfare of the citizens.
That is why Mayor studies the work habits of the employees at the Hawttone Western plane in the 1920’s as recorded by Pugh (1990), and discovered that efficiency in the production process and increased output were been realized when employees were being motivated and the reverse is the case when they were not motivated.
However, in the field of education, the role of motivation cannot be over emphasized. That is to say that motivation plays a very significant role in attaining the overall educational aims and objectives through teaching and learning process. To further buttress this argument, Ormond (2003) sees motivation as a direct behaviour towards attaining a particular goal. Bandura (1997) stated that the use of model to motivate students is recommended because, students may model after the personalities society approves. Huffman et al (1991) sees motivation as a goal directed behaviour. Steers and Porter (1983) viewed motivation as concerned with how human beings are energized, sustained, directed, stopped and the type of subjective reaction presents in the individual whole as all these processes are taking place. As if these were not enough, Ugwu 1997) still on motivation implies that behaviour has an origin, which terminates when the goal of an individual is achieved. And Ekong (2000) emphatically stated that “ to achieve effective performance in the teaching learning process, the teachers as well as the students must be motivated”.
The reasons behind this are outlined bellow:
In the classroom, motivation helps to increase efficiency and adequacy of behaviour. For instance, a motivated child would face his classroom work with zeal and interest. Such a student will always be in school, and carry out the necessary assignment. Motivation of teachers on the other hand, are seen to be working tirelessly in the schools. They prepare their lesson notes at and when due, teaches students, gives assignments, conduct tests, exams and marks, and records them appropriate. Hence, Herzberg (1978)stated that if teachers are properly motivated, this can change an otherwise mediocre group into a highly productive team. Equally, motivation brings about the use good teaching methods in the classroom. This is because, a motivated teacher presents his subjects matter in a variety of ways thereby bringing novelty in his teaching. Example, the use of teaching aids, various illustrations using concrete objects which makes the lesson more interesting, effective and realistic.
Motivation also brings competition and increases learning efficiency on the part of the learners. For instance, if the teacher uses positive reinforcement to reward students who answers questions correctly, or who performs highly in tests or examinations, other students who did not perform well will be challenged and hence encouraged to study harder bring about competition in such classroom.
2.3 MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR TEACHERS
Studies on motivational strategies on teachers have shown that teachers by some kind of incentives are recognized as being effective. Incentives are often given in the form of money, that is money can be seen as part of the reward system designed to reinforce behaviour and therefore to motivate people to work towards that goals and those of the organization.
The realization of the goals and objectives of any establishment or organization largely depends on how the workers perceive and react to their jobs, that is attitude which to a great extent determine the output.
Without motivation, teacher performance would be highly hindered. The level of motivation of workers will determine the teachers response to the organizational rules, responsibilities and opportunities.
Smith (1973) conceptualized the economic basis of human motivation. He believes that people work primarily for money and they are motivated to do only that which provide them with the greatest rewards.
Apart from the monetary reward as a motivating factor, according to Herberg (1978), recognition, achievement, responsibility and the challenge of the work it self are vital parts of the reward system that can be offered by the management, as positive motivation irrespective of money. In view of Seligman (1990), motivation is an inner feelings that generates a desire to achieve bigger and better things. Mayo (1970), agrees with Seligman M. when she said that productivity was directly related to job satisfaction, which was derived more from intrinsic factor such as recognition and sense of fulfilment than from extrinsic factors such as pay and working conditions.
According to Waitley D. (1996), he observed that apathy and lack of effort are healthy reactions of normal people to an unhealthy industrial situation. He was of the belief that people are naturally motivated to act responsibly, and to be self reliant and independent.
Moreover, Jenis et al (1975), investigated on the effects of persuasive communication which attempts to motivate teachers to conform with a set of recommendations by stimulating fear reactions. In this inventigation, 200 sample students were exposed to three varying degrees of fear appeals and the result showed that fear were successful in arousing effective reaction which ascertain that workers perform their task.
In educational setting, for administrators to motivate the workers, is that they do these things which they hope will satisfy these desire and induce the employee to act in a desired manner. In an organizational set up like a school, the motivational strategies is concerned with how behaviour gets started.
Motivational strategies for teachers as a study where it is applied to staff to discover what prompt people to behave the way they do.Taylor (1911), stressed on the psychological and sociological factors in making a teacher to do his or her job better. For instance, in school, if the principal shows appreciation for a “teacher’s performance” and say to him or her… “you are doing a very good job, thank you” this act alone, makes the teacher feel that his or her contribution is valued and therefore he or she is encouraged to do even more. In this case, the teacher had been psychologically motivated to continue his or her work as efficiently and effectively as possible.
Furthermore, if teacher’s hard work are begin considered when giving promotion and other benefits in the educational system, it will make teachers to be working very hard in the school in order to give in their best effectively and efficiently.
An administrator who wants efficiency must provide maximum motivation among his teachers and have keen appreciation of teachers behaviours. With reference to Festinger (1957), motivation of teachers is very important for the achievement of educational objectives.
2.4 PROBLEMS AFFECTING TEACHING PERFORMANCE
There are many factors, which affect the teaching performance in our educational system and hence include the following:
Inadequate provision of facilities there are inadequate provision o facilities in our schools for effective learning process. According to Ojogan (1997), the television stimulates the illustration of motion. Osanyande (1998) observed that the school environment is no longer what it used to be. He further observed that dilapidated school infrastructures and instructional materials in the schools in the schools have changed the school environment. Ojernido (1998) opined that teachers are ill-equiped to teach the sciences coupled with the chronic problem of lack of motivation.
Inadequate provision of fund no programme can be carried out successfully without money. The school just like any other organization needs money. Not just money but sufficient amount in orders to carryout their duties effectively.
Since there is insufficiency, in the provision of fund needed by the school administrators to operate and run the school, it will hinder the activities carried out in the classroom. The school needs money for the payment of workers’ salaries, putting up structures for classrooms, offices etc. purchasing of equipments and where the money is inadequately provided, it becomes an obstacle for the school, to the implementation of it’s programme.
Irregular payment of teacher’s salaries or lack of motivation to teachers this is another problem militating against teaching performance. That is, no motivation is given to teachers in terms of promotion, seminars and workshops also, there is irregular payment of their salaries at and when due. These affect the teaching performance and academic performance of the students.
Administrative problems the administrative style of the principal effects teaching performance to a large extent. Hence, the administrative style of principal should be democratic, empathy, consultation and goal oriented. But when the administrative style of the principal is very poor, it leads to poor performance of the students in the school. As a result of this, it may lead to low self-esteem. This in turn may lead to truancy and dropping out of the school and the will likely cripple the students future as Bowker and klein (1998) noted.
The societal view of the teachers the attitude of the society towards the education system is equally hinders the effectiveness of teaching performance in the classroom. The societal view of the teachers are looked down upon and is not pleasant. Wale (1985), said that he loved teaching, derived satisfaction from impacting knowledge to his pupil but what repelled him was out of classroom situation. Also Awaribor (1998). Stressed that the best young people will be attracted to teaching as life line career, if working conditions of the teacher is comparable to those enjoyed by other professional groups.
The society do exhibit negative attitudes towards the school, by not showing interest in what goes on in the school and do not care to contribute it’s own part to the development of the school. They expect the government to do it all. Whenever the communities fail to participate in the affairs of the school, such as financial support, any plan for expansion in the school will not work out as expected.
Inadequate supervision in school system this is another problem militating against teaching performance in the school. Supervision is highly dispensable in the school if efficiency and good quality is to be achieved. Ukeje (1992) defined supervision as the process of over-seeing the performance of tasks assigned to an individual, a group or groups of people, with the aim of directing, and controlling it’s execution to a successful outcome. But when there is inadequate of supervision in the school, there will be a set back in the teaching and learning process and hence, the academic performance of the students.
Nwaogu (1986), opined that; “supervision of instruction in the school entails the guiding and co-ordination of the work of the teachers and that the learning will be facilitated. Eze (2002), said that in order to achieve possible best result, the school administrators should ensure adequate supervision of the workers (teachers) so as to make sure that the various tasks assigned to them are carried out effectively.
Lack of accurate and adequate statistics this also hinders the effective of school administration. The administration sometimes overlook proper record keeping as regards to the resources they manage, both the teachers, students, equipments, finance etc. sometimes, the statistics are being either under-casted or overcastted and this constrains effective planning and implementation of the school plans in the attainment of the school goals and objectives.
2.5 THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE
When there is proper motivation, it leads to good performance and high productivity to the sustenance of the national growth and development and also the welfare of the citizens. Hence, the impact of motivation on students academic performance cannot be over emphasized, and they are as follows:
Motivation help to direct and regulate the child’s behaviour in such a case, the behaviour of such a student is always guided. The behavior is purposeful and persistent. For instance, when a motivated child is given an assignment in the school, he puts every effort to ensure that he gets the assignments correctly. Even when he fails the assignment, he does not get discouraged but rather puts more effort towards the achievement of his goals Omebe (2001).
Also, the impact of motivation on students can be seen in the classroom settings. Motivation energizes the behaviour of the students and arouses them for action. Not only the motivation energizes the behaviour, it also sustain their interests and behaviour for a longer period of activity. Motivated state helps to increase efficiency and adequacy of behaviour. For instance, a motivated student faces his class work with zeal and interest. Such student will always be in school and carryout the necessary assignment.
Another impact of motivation on students performance could be seen in the behaviour of a motivated student which is selective in nature. The behaviour is directed towards a selective goal which the individual sets for himself Eze (2002) . In such a situation, the student’s action or behaviour does not move in a haphazard manner instead, it is being directed towards the achievement of a selective goal which the individual sets for himself. Example is when a student is determined to achieve high scores in examination, such a person selects appropriate behaviour such as studying hard, so as to attain his set goals. And the motive ends by the achievement of the goals.
SUMMARY OF REVIEW LITERATURE
The review of literature related to the study was carried out under five (5) sub headings namely: the importance of motivation, theories of motivation on learning outcome, motivational strategies for teachers, problems affecting teaching performance, and finally, the impact of motivation on student’s performance.
Literature review shows that the importance of motivation plays a vital role in attaining the over all educational aim and objectives through teaching and learning process. Observations from several author such as Ormord, Ugwu and others shows that motivation is used to achieve effective performance in the teaching learning process and also that the teachers as well as the students must be motivated.
Pertaining theories of motivation on learning out come, the review shows that all behaviour are motivated and people have reasons for doing the things they do and the behaviour is oriented towards meeting certain goals and objectives. And it treats some theories of motivation such as: Maslow’s theory of motivation, Victor Vroom theory of motivation, Mc Gregor theory of motivation, Herberg theory of motivation, and Cognitive – field theory of motivation.
The review on the motivational strategies for teachers show that when teachers hard work are being considered like paying them their salaries regularly, adequate promotion and other benefits in the educational system, it will make the teachers to be working very hard in the school in order to give in their best.
It was also seen from the review that many problems affect teaching performance. Such problems are: inadequate provision of fund, administrative problem, the social view of the teachers, inadequate supervision in the school system, lack of accurate and adequate statistics are seen as the hindrance or problems effecting teaching performance.
The review also show the impact of motivation on students performance. Motivation regulates, directs, the child’s behaviour and the behaviour of such a student will be guided. Equally, the impact of motivation on students can be seen in the classroom setting, that is, motivation energizes the behaviour of students arouses them for action.
This chapter describes the method used in the setting out the research under the following heading:
- Design of the study
- Area of study
- Population of the study
- Sample and sampling technique
- Instrument for data collection
- Method of data collection
- Validation of instrument
- Scoring of the instrument
- Method of data analysis.
3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY
This is a survey study, aimed at collecting information from the respondents, based on their belief and experience on the impact of motivation on teachers and academic performance of the students.
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
The study covers some selected secondary schools in Udi local government area of Enugu state. The local government is bounded in the North by Igbo-etiti local government area. It is also bounded in the South by Ezeagu and Oji-river local government area. It is also bounded in the west by Uzo-Uwani local government area and in the East by Awgu and Nkanu local government area.
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The population of the study includes all the secondary schools in Udi local government area, both the private and public owned secondary schools in the local government. It has a total of 16 secondary schools with a total population of about 8090 students with 190 teachers.
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
Simple random sampling technique was used to select the number of secondary schools used in the study. The sample consists of 120 teachers randomly selected from the total number of 190 teachers in the 16 secondary schools. This gives every teacher the opportunity of being represented in the study.
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
The major research instrument used in this study was questionnaire which comprises of section A to D. the four sections of the questionnaire contained 23 items which are to be scored on the Likert scale as follows: SA, AD and SD.
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The questionnaire were administered by hand and collected on the spot. This ensured a 100% return of the instrument.
3.7 VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENTS
The questionnaire items were face-validated by my supervisor. The language, contents and the structure of the items were critically examined and possible corrections and suggestions were made.
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The data collected for the study was organized and analyzed to determine the mean score items.
Mean (X) = fx
Where strongly agree = 4
Agreed = 3
Disagreed = 2
Strongly disagreed = 1
4.0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
This chapter deals with the presentation and analysis of data. The presentation is done according to the order of the research questions given in chapter one.
Each table represents a section of the questionnaire and a brief interpretation follows after each table has been represented.
RESEARCH QUESTION 1:
To what extent does irregular payment of teachers’ salaries affect the teaching performance on their academic desk?
Information on this research question is contained in the questionnaire items 1-6, which form the section A of the questionnaire.
Table 1 Cluster 1
S/n Items SA
1 Teachers, sometimes refuse teaching, because of irregular payment their salaries 58 40 18 4 120 3.3 Accepted
2 Some of the subjects are not taught in my school, because there are no teachers to handle them. 51 44 12 13 120 3.1 Accepted
3 Irregular payment of teachers’ salaries leads to poor academic performance of the students 48 42 16 14 120 3.0 Accepted
4 Because of the irregular payment of teachers’ salaries, they combine the teaching work with other business 38 49 21 12 120 2.8 Accepted
5 Teachers do not put in their best in the classroom, since they are not paid regularly 47 42 3 28 120 2.9 Accepted
6. The society is responsible for the irregular payment of the teachers’ salaries 14 28 30 48 120 2.1 Rejected
From the table above, responses on item 1,2,3,4 and 5 with a mean score of 3.3,3.1,3.0,2.8 and 2.9 respectively clearly shows that irregular payment of teachers’ salaries affect their teaching performance. While item 6 with a mean score of 2.1 indicates that the society is not responsible for the irregular payment of teachers salary.
RESEARCH QUESTION 2
To what extent does establishment of seminars, work shops and conferences to teachers influence the teaching and learning performance.
Table 2: Cluster 2
S/n Items SA
7 Seminars, workshops and conferences when established for the teachers enable them to improve the academic performance 60 31 14 15 120.1 3.1 Accepted
8 The provision of seminars, workshops and conferences for the teachers helps them to put in their best for nations building. 41 53 12 14 120 3.0 Accepted
9 Society is responsible for the establishment of seminars, workshops and conferences for the teachers 21 4 70 25 120 2.2 Rejected
10 The provision of seminars, workshops and conferences enables teachers to acquire more knowledge that will help them in the classroom 81 32 4 3 120 3.6 Accepted
11 The establishment of these programmes for teachers leads to the introduction of new subjects in my school because of the teachers more experience in the provision of the programmes. 49 42 16 13 120 3.1 Accepted.
From the table above, the mean score of 3.1, 30.0, 3.6 and 3.1 in the item 7.8.10 and 11 respectively indicates that establishment of seminars; workshop and conferences to teachers influence the teaching and learning performance. While item 9 with a mean score of 2.2 of the respondents are of the view that the society is not responsible for the establishment of seminars, workshops and conferences.
RESEARCH QUESTION 3
To what extent does inadequate promotion of teachers affect them in disposing their duties effectively and efficiently.
Table 3: Cluster 3
S/n Items SA
12 Teachers’ standard of living are not encouraging because of their inadequate promotion of the teachers and hence they lack some basic needs 61 34 8 17 120 3.2 Accepted
13 The inadequate promotion of teachers’ at and when due, discourages them in disposing their duties efficiently and effectively and in this case, some times, they go on strike 72 38 5 5 120 3.5 Accepted
14 Teachers are not provided with transport and housing allowance and this hinders the teaching performance in the classroom 41 52 13 14 120 3.0 Accepted
15 Inadequate promotion of teachers at and when due in our school system, some times make them to abandome teaching work and they go for better paid job 45 43 24 8 120 2.9 Accepted
16 Students should be blamed for the inadequate promotion of teachers, for not protesting for lack of teachers’ promotion 16 29 60 15 120 24 Rejected
17 Some subjects in my school are neglected because of the ugly situation of the teachers. 51 49 7 13 120 3.2 Accepted
From the table above, item 12,13 and 15 with the mean scores of 3.2,3.5 and 2.9 respectively, shows that inadequate promotions of teachers affect their teaching performance.
Also, item 14 with a mean score of 3.0 accepted that teachers are not provided with transportation and housing allowance and as such hinders their teaching performance. While item 16 with a mean score of 2.4 shows that students should not be blamed for the inadequate promotion of teachers. And item 17 with a mean score of 3.2 of the responses shows that some subjects are neglected because of the ugly situation of the teachers.
RESEARCH QUESTION 4
To what extent does negligent of teachers’ welfare affect his service (teaching)?
Table 4: Cluster 4
S/n Items SA
18 Teachers do relent in teaching because; they lack a necessary material that enhances them in teaching performance. 52 48 9 11 120 3.2 Accepted
19 Teachers do not have leave allowance and as a result it affects their service in the classroom 43 38 27 12 120 2.9 Accepted
20 The individuals and society neglect their roles in the school and does not encourage teachers to put in their best. 46 34 25 15 120 2.9 Accepted
21 Teachers are not given incentives by the government for instance fringe benefits in order to influence their best in teaching performance. 57 41 16 6 120 3.2 Accepted
22 Government is responsible for the negligent of the teachers welfare, for not providing conducive environment for the teachers 63 28 21 8 120 3.2 Accepted
23 Most teachers do not co-operate with their school head and hence, always have problem with them. 58 40 19 3 120 3.3 Accepted
From the above table, items 18, 19 and 21 with the mean scores of 3.2, 2.9 and 3.2 respectively indicates that teachers welfare are been neglected and thus their services. While item 20 with a mean score of 2.9 also shows that individuals and society also neglect their roles in encouraging teachers to put in their best.
And item 22 with a mean score of 3.2 accepted that government is responsible for the negligent of teachers’ welfare. Likewise, in item 23 with a mean score of 3.3 of the responses accepted that teachers do not co-operated with their school heads.
5.0 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION.
This chapter deals with the discussion of the findings of the study the recommendations based on the findings of the research and the conclusion drawn from the study. The educational implications, suggestions for further research and limitations of the study were also included.
5.1 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS:
The discussion of the findings is done based on the responses of the respondents, as regards to the research questions that were used to guide the study.
RESEARCH QUESTION 1
To what extent does irregular payment of teachers’ salaries affect the teaching performance on their academic desk?
Cluster 1-6 of table 1 is used to answer this question. This table reveals how item 1,2,3,4 and 5 with the mean score of 3.3,3.1, 3.0, 2.8 and 2.9 respectively accept that irregular payment of teachers’ salaries affect their teaching performance. This findings show that teachers refuse to teach because of irregular payment of salaries and hence, this has a negative impact on effecting teaching and learning.
Also item 6 with a mean score of 2.1 indicates that the society is not responsible for the irregular payment of teachers’ salary.
It can be concluded that the irregular payment of teachers’ salaries leads to teachers reluctancy in delivery of their lessons and this leads to general decline in the academic performance of the students which may lead the students getting involve in crime. This goes in line with Browker and klein (1998), which opined that poor academic performance is known to be a strong predictor of involvement in crime.
RESEARCH QUESTION 2
To what extent does establishment of seminars, workshops and conferences to teachers influence the teaching and learning performance.
The second cluster of table 2 was used in answering this question. It ranges from question 7-11. The table shows that the mean score of 3.1, 3.0, 3.6 and 3.1 in the items 7,8,10 and 11 respectively indicates that the establishment of seminars, workshop and conferences of teachers influence the teaching and learning performance. And item 9 with the mean score of 2.2 of the respondents are of the view that the society is not responsible for the establishment of seminars, workshops and conferences.
From all indications, this shows that the establishment of these programmes for teachers improve the students academic performance of the students in the classroom. As pointed out by Ekong (2000), “to achieve effective performance in the teaching and learning process, the teacher must be motivated.
RESEARCH QUESTION 3
To what extent does inadequate promotion of teachers affect them in disposing their duties effectively and efficiently?
The third cluster question 12-17 of table 3 was used to answer research question III. The table shows that the item 12,13 and 15 with the mean scores of 3.2, 3.5 and 2.9 respectively indicates that inadequate promotion of teachers affect their teaching performance. While item 14 with a mean score of 3.0 agreed that teachers are not provided with transportation and housing allowance and as such, it hinders their teaching performance. Also item 16 with a mean score of 2.4 indicates that the students should not be blamed for the inadequate promotion of teachers. Also item 17 with a mean score of 3.2 of the responses shows that some subjects are also neglected because of the bad situation of the teachers.
This shows that the ugly situation of the teachers, some times make them to abandon the teaching work and they look for a better paid job. This goes in line with wale (1985) who said that he love teaching, derived satisfaction from impacting knowledge to his pupils but what repelled him was the out of class room situation.
RESEARCH QUESTION 4
To what extent does negligent of teachers’ welfare affect his service (teaching)?
From the finding, cluster iv of table iv was used to answer this question. The table shows that items 18, 19 and 21 with the mean scores of 3.2,2.9 and 3.2 responsively indicates that teachers welfare are been neglected and thus their services. Also the findings in item 20 with a mean score of 2.9 shows that individual and society also neglect their roles in encouraging teachers to put in their best.
Also item 22 with a mean score of 3.2 accepted that government is responsible for the negligent of teachers’ welfare. Like wise in item 23 with a mean score of 3.3 of the responses accepted the fact that teachers do not co-operate with their school heads.
From table iv, the research reveals that when there is negligent of teachers welfare, it can lead to lack of necessary materials which are used in teaching. The finding also shows that the society has neglected to contribute their quota to the school and does not encourage teachers to put in their best, teachers are looked down upon in the society. As Osaji (1983) likened teachers to the proverbial goose which is too dirty to be touched but lays golden eggs.
1. From the analysis of the respondents, I found out that teachers refused to teach effectively in the classroom and it leads to a general decline in the academic performance of the students because of irregular payment of teachers’ salaries. I discovered from the research that teachers combine the teaching work with other business since they are not paid regularly by the government and this discouraged effective teaching and learning activities in our schools.
2. I discovered that there is a positive impact affecting teaching and learning in our schools when seminars, workshops and conferences were established for teachers. The research equally shows that teachers acquired more knowledge from the programmes and hence, it improved the academic performance of the student in the schools.
3. I also discovered that teachers are not serious with their teaching work in the schools because of inadequate promotion by the government. I found out equally, that students academic performance is very poor because teachers sometimes abandon the teaching work and go far better paid job.
4. I found out that teachers refused to carry out their duties effectively and efficiently in the classroom, since their welfare have been neglected. I also discovered that students academic performance is affected because of the Negligent of the teachers welfare ad this leads to drop=out in the schools.
Since the main purpose of this study is to identity the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and academic performance of the students, the researcher made the following conclusion from the result of the study.
Irregular payment of teachers’ salaries adversely affects teaching and learning in our schools. Hence teachers refuse to teach and consequently, some subjects are not taught in the schools and these hinders the effective and efficient teaching and learning in the sampled schools.
The establishment of seminars, workshops and conferences to the teachers have a great impact in their teaching performance. These programmes will enable the teachers to improve the academic performance of the students in the classroom and they will also acquire more knowledge which will help them in the classroom work.
Inadequate promotion of teachers poses a very big hindrance in disposing their duties effectively and efficiently. It leads to their low standard of living and hence, they lack some basic needs. Also, it causes unseriousness of the teachers, sometimes, they abandon their teaching work and they look for better paid job. Teachers lack housing and transport allowance and this also hinders the teaching performance in the sampled schools.
The negligent of teachers welfare emanated from all institutions and individuals concerned in education such as the government, the external agencies like the communities and non-governmental organisations (NGO’s) and even the individual who are directly involved in the schools such as the school head, and hence, they (teachers) always have problem with them.
5.4 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATION
The findings of the study have implications for all who are involved in school programmes. It implies that motivation of teachers will increase their performance and academic performance of the students in school will also grow.
For the school heads and staff, it will expose their areas of weakness and make them to take precaution in discharging of their duties. It will also enhance the students’ knowledge on the need to motivate their teachers since their academic performance will increase.
And to the ministries of education and educational planners, it will unfold the prevalent condition in the school and this will call for serving endeavours to provide adequate materials needed in the school for effective teaching and learning, hence, it implies that insufficient provision of learning equipment affects educational ventures.
Based on the findings and observation of the study on the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and academic performance of the students, the researcher gave the following recommendations on what should be done, in order to reduce these problems to the barest minimum, if not to completely eradication of it. Hence, the following recommendations are made:
1. There is need for the government to motivate teachers through regular payment of organization salaries, establishment, of seminar, workshops and conferences and in. service training in order to enhance productivity.
2. School heads should make use of correct motivational strategies in schools; such as attitude motivation and recognition. Also autocratic /dictatorship leadership styles should be discouraged.
3. In addition, teachers should work harder to enhance their knowledge and skills. Also the society should respect and recognize teachers position in nation building. Equally, the communities should see the school as an institution that inculcates into individuals the society’s value and norms and see it as a responsibility to donate to it’s welfare.
4. Again instructional materials and other facilities should be made available for teachers to carryout their duties as no farmer can work without his implements and no doctor can work in filthy and unequipped hospital.
Lastly, the federal government should implement the proposal in the national policy on education as contained in section nine (9).
5.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The following problems limited the extent to which the researcher would have gone in carrying out the research.
1. Inadequate financial resources affected the study, hence the sample size was small.
2. Limite time available to the researcher also influence the research. This was because, the research was carried out during the school academic programme.
5.7 SUGGESTED AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
1. Studies should be made on the relationship between teachers motivation and students academic performance.
2. Further research should be made on importance of school facilities and instructional materials towards effective teaching and learning.
3. The study sample was based on selected secondary schools not taking cognizance of the tertiary institutions. Further should therefore be made on the impact of motivation a teachers and academic performance of the students.
5.8 SUMMARY OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and academic performance of the students in the secondary schools in Udi local government area of Enugu state.
Simple random sampling technique was used to select the numbers of schools used for the research the sample used for the research was 120 persons (teachers’ only). The main instrument used for data collection was questionnaire, which contained 23 items. The responses on the questionnaire items were used to answer the research question and the mean scores of rating of the items – were computed and used as a guide in analyzing the responses as follows:
1. The effect of irregular payment of teachers’ salaries in the teaching performance. The background of the problem was discussed and it shows that only when position motivation is given to teachers that the volume of output would be bridged to the volume of iputs.
2. The establishment of seminars, workshops and conferences to teachers influence the teaching performance to a great extent and hence, there will be increase in the student academic performance.
3. Inadequate promotion of teachers has a negative impact in disposing their duties effectively and efficiently, thus, this leads to teachers’ low standard of living and sometimes, they abandon the teaching work and they look for better-paid job.
4. The negligent of teachers’ welfare affect his service (teaching) and it is caused by the attitudes of all that are concerned in the school such as the government the school administrators, school heads and even the society at large who does not encourage teachers to put in their best.
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To what extent does irregular payment of teachers’ salaries affect the teachers performance on their academic desk?
SA A D SD
1 Teachers sometimes refuse teaching because of irregular payment of their salaries.
2 Some of the subjects are not taught in my school, because of there are no teachers to handle them
3 Irregular payment of teachers’ salaries leads to poor academic performance of the students.
4 Because of the irregular payment of teacher salaries they combine the teaching work with other business
5 Teachers do not put in their best in the classroom, since they are not paid regularly.
6 The society is responsible for the irregular payment of the teachers’ salaries.
To what extent does establishment of seminars, workshop and conferences to teacher influence the teaching and learning performance?
SA A D SD
7 Seminars, workshop and conferences when established for the teachers enable them to improve the academic performance o the students.
8 The provision of seminars, workshop and conferences for the teachers helps them to put in their best for nation building.
9 Society is responsible for the establishment of the seminars, workshops and conferences for the teachers
10 The provision of such programmes like seminars, workshops and conferences enables the teachers to acquire more knowledge that will help them in the classroom work.
11 The establishment of these programmes for the teachers leads to the introduction of new subjects in my school because of the teachers, more experience in the provision of the programme.
To what extent does inadequate promotion of teachers affect them in disposing their duties efficiently and effectively.
SA A D SD
12 Teachers’ standard of living are not encouraging because of their inadequate promotion.
13 Teachers sometimes go on strike because of their inadequate promotion by the government as and when due.
14 Teachers are not provided with transport and housing allowance and this hinders their performance.
15 Inadequate promotion of teachers sometimes make them to abandon their teaching work and look for better paid job.
16 Students should be blamed for the inadequate promotion of teachers for not protesting for lack of teachers promotion.
17 Some subjects in my school are neglected because of the ugly situations of the teachers
To what extent does negligent of teachers’ welfare affect his service (teaching).
SA A D SD
18 Teachers do relent in teaching because they lack necessary materials that will enhance them in teaching performance.
19 Teachers do not have leave allowance and as a result, it affects their service in the classroom.
20 The individuals and society neglect their roles in the school and does not encourage teachers to put in their best.
21 Teachers are not given incentives by the government for instance, fringe benefits in order to influence their best in the teaching performance.
22 Government is responsible for the negligent of the teachers welfare, for not providing condusive environment for the teachers.
23 Most teachers do not co-operate with their school heads and the school authority and hence, always have problems with them.
Academic Performance – The Impact Of Motivation On Teachers’ And Students’ In Some Selected Secondary School In Udi Local Government Area